Feminismo/s

Imagining motherhood and becoming a mother after egg freezing. An anthropological study in the French context

Yolinliztli Pérez-Hernández

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2023.41.10

Resumen

Este artículo examina cómo las mujeres que acceden a la autoconservación de óvulos por razones sociales, médicas y en el marco de una donación de óvulos (egg sharing), imaginan ser madres (maternidad normativa) en contraste con cómo se convierten en madres (trayectoria reproductiva). Metodológicamente, se utilizan 43 entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas, conducidas entre mujeres francesas que han criopreservado sus óvulos en Francia y en el extranjero, cinco de las cuales han tenido hijos. En el análisis se constató que la mayoría de las mujeres entrevistadas asocian la maternidad con la pareja heterosexual, la familia nuclear y un deseo normalizado de maternidad biogenética. Sin embargo, diversas interrupciones ontológicas causadas por la infertilidad, la soltería o una enfermedad introducen la posibilidad de que no puedan tener hijos como lo desean, lo que las lleva a imaginar (y considerar) otras vías para tener hijos/as; vías médicas y no médicas. Las narraciones de las mujeres que se han convertido en madres sobre sus trayectorias alternativas hacia la maternidad describen una fragmentación de la maternidad en componentes genéticos, biológicos y sociales, que se combinan y jerarquizan de forma original. A través de mi argumentación muestro que, aunque las trayectorias reproductivas alternativas pueden modificar los vínculos de parentesco entre las partes implicadas, no necesariamente desafían la maternidad normativa. Que yo sepa, este es el primer estudio empírico realizado en Francia sobre la congelación de óvulos. El mismo contribuye al emergente corpus de literatura académica que explora la autoconservación de óvulos y sus vínculos con la maternidad y moviliza una aproximación innovativa al examinar las similitudes entre congelación de óvulos por razones médicas, sociales y egg sharing. Igualmente, propone que las mujeres que congelan sus óvulos por razones médicas y por egg sharing también aspiran a una maternidad normativa. Finalmente, este artículo contribuye a analizar el proceso de toma de decisión de las mujeres que se convierten en madres después de una autoconservación de óvulos.

Palabras clave

Francia; investigación cualitativa; autoconservación social de óvulos; autoconservación médica de óvulos; egg sharing; maternidad normativa; trayectoria reproductiva

Texto completo:

PDF (English) Estadísticas

Referencias

Argyle, C. E., Harper, J. C., & Davies, M. C. (2016). Oocyte cryopreservation: Where are we now? Human Reproduction Update, 22(4), 440–449. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmw007

American Society for Reproductive Medicine & Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology SART. (2013). Mature oocyte cryopreservation: A guideline. Fertility and Sterility, 99(1), 37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.09.028

Bajos, N., & Ferrand, M. (2006). L’interruption volontaire de grossesse et la recomposition de la norme procreative. Sociétés contemporaines, 61(1), 91–117. https://doi.org/10.3917/soco.061.0091

Baldwin, K. (2016). Ice, Ice, Baby? A Sociological Exploration of Social Egg Freezing. [Doctoral dissertation, De Montfort University].

Baldwin, K. (2017). ‘I Suppose I Think to Myself, That’s the Best Way to Be a Mother’: How Ideologies of Parenthood Shape Women’s Use of Social Egg Freezing Technology. Sociological Research Online, 22(2), 20–34. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.4187

Baldwin, K., Culley, L., Hudson, N., & Mitchell, H. (2014). Reproductive technology and the life course: Current debates and research in social egg freezing. Human Fertility, 17(3), 170–179. https://doi.org/10.3109/14647273.2014.939723

Baldwin, K., Culley, L., Hudson, N., Mitchell, H., & Lavery, S. (2015). Oocyte cryopreservation for social reasons: Demographic profile and disposal intentions of UK users. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 31(2), 239–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2015.04.010

Becker, G., Butler, A., & Nachtigall, R. D. (2005). Resemblance talk: A challenge for parents whose children were conceived with donor gametes in the US. Social Science & Medicine, 61(6), 1300–1309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.01.018

Birenbaum‐Carmeli, D., Inhorn, M. C., Vale, M. D., & Patrizio, P. (2021). Cryopreserving Jewish Motherhood: Egg Freezing in Israel and the United States. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 35(3), 346–363. https://doi.org/10.1111/maq.12643

Blyth, E. (2004). Patient experiences of an ≪egg sharing≫ programme. Human Fertility, 7(3), 157–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/14647270400006879

Brunet, L., & Fournier, V. (2017). L’autoconservation ovocytaire pour raison d’âge: Y a-t-il des arguments éthiques pour l’interdire ? Centre Ethique Clinique.

Carroll, K., & Krolokke, C. (2018). Freezing for love: Enacting ≪responsible≫ reproductive citizenship through egg freezing. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 20(9), 992–1005. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2017.1404643

Cattapan, A., Hammond, K., Haw, J., & Tarasoff, L. (2014). Breaking the Ice: Young Feminist Scholars of Reproductive Politics Reflect on Egg Freezing. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 7(2), 236-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.11.027

Cobo, A., Garcia-Velasco, J. A., Coello, A., Domingo, J., Pellicer, A., & Remohi, J. (2016). Oocyte vitrification as an efficient option for elective fertility preservation. Fertility and Sterility, 105(3), 755-764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.06.019

De Proost, M., & Coene, G. (2019). Emancipation on thin ice: Women’s autonomy, reproductive justice, and social egg freezing. Tijdschrift Voor Genderstudies, 22(4), 357–371. https://doi.org/10.5117/TVGN2019.4.003.DEPR

De Proost, M., & Paton, A. (2022). Medical versus social egg freezing: The importance of future choice for women’s decision-making. Monash Bioethics Review, 2022, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40592-022-00153-9

Debest, C., Mazuy, M., & l’equipe de l’enquete Fecond. (2014). Rester sans enfant: Un choix de vie a contre-courant. Population & Sociétés, 508(2), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.3917/popsoc.508.0001

Franklin, S. (1997). Embodied Progress: A Cultural Account of Assisted Conception. Routledge.

Froidevaux-Metterie, C. (2017). Conclusion. In L. Brunet & V. Fournier (Eds.), L’autoconservation ovocytaire pour raison d’âge: Y a-t-il des arguments éthiques pour l’interdire ? (pp. 93–97). Centre Ethique Clinique.

Gocmen, İ., & Kılıc, A. (2017). Egg freezing experiences of women in Turkey: From the social context to the narratives of reproductive ageing and empowerment. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 25(2), 168–182. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506817742929

Goold, I., & Savulescu, J. (2009). In favour of freezing eggs for non-medical reasons. Bioethics, 23(1), 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00679.x

Gurtin, Z. B. (2012, April 23). Evaluating egg-sharing: New findings on old debates. BioNews. https://www.progress.org.uk/

evaluating-egg-sharing-new-findings-on-old-debates/

Gurtin, Z. B., Shah, T., Wang, J., & Ahuja, K. (2019). Reconceiving egg freezing: Insights from an analysis of 5 years of data from a UK clinic. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 38(2), 272–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2018.11.003

Gurtin, Z. B., & Tiemann, E. (2021). The marketing of elective egg freezing: A content, cost and quality analysis of UK fertility clinic websites. Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, 12, 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbms.2020.10.004

Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., Pritchard, N., Hickey, M., Peate, M., McBain, J., Agresta, F., Bayly, C., & Fisher, J. (2017). Reproductive experiences of women who cryopreserved oocytes for non-medical reasons. Human Reproduction, 32(3), 575–581. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dew342

Hammond, K. (2018). The role of normative ideologies of motherhood in intended mothers’ experiences of egg donation in Canada. Anthropology & Medicine, 25(3), 265–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/13648470.2018.1507483

Harwood, K. (2009). Egg Freezing: A Breakthrough for Reproductive Autonomy? Bioethics, 23(1), 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00680.x

Harwood, K. (2017). Egg Freezing and the Feminist Quest for Equality in the Workplace. In L. Campo-Engelstein & P. Burcher (Eds.), Reproductive Ethics (pp. 63–75). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52630-0_5

Hodes-Wertz, B., Druckenmiller, S., Smith, M., & Noyes, N. (2013). What do reproductive-age women who undergo oocyte cryopreservation think about the process as a means to preserve fertility? Fertility and Sterility, 100(5), 1343–1349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.07.201

Hoffower, H. (2020, January 15). More women are freezing their eggs to delay having kids—But the process costs thousands of dollars and still might not work. Here’s what you should know. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-much-does-it-cost-to-freeze-your-eggs-2020-1

Human Fertilisation & Embryology Authority, (HFEA). (2022, October 6). Egg freezing | HFEA. https://www.hfea.gov.uk/treatments/fertility-preservation/egg-freezing/

Inhorn, M. C. (2017). The Egg Freezing Revolution? Gender, Technology, and Fertility Preservation in the Twenty-First Century. In Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp. 1–14). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0428

Inhorn, M. C., Birenbaum-Carmeli, D., & Patrizio, P. (2017). Medical egg freezing and cancer patients’ hopes: Fertility preservation at the intersection of life and death. Social Science & Medicine, 195, 25–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.031 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.031

Inhorn, M. C., Birenbaum-Carmeli, D., Birger, J., Westphal, L. M., Doyle, J., Gleicher, N., Meirow, D., Dirnfeld, M., Seidman, D., Kahane, A., & Patrizio, P. (2018a). Elective egg freezing and its underlying socio-demography: A binational analysis with global implications. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 16(70), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-018-0389-z

Inhorn, M. C., Birenbaum-Carmeli, D., Westphal, L. M., Doyle, J., Gleicher, N., Meirow, D., Dirnfeld, M., Seidman, D., Kahane, A., & Patrizio, P. (2018b). Ten pathways to elective egg freezing: A binational analysis. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 35(11), 2003–2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10815-018-1277-3

Inhorn, M. C., Birenbaum-Carmeli, D., Yu, R., & Patrizio, P. (2021). Egg Freezing at the End of Romance: A Technology of Hope, Despair, and Repair. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 47(1), 53-84. https://doi.org/10.1177/0162243921995892

Kretz, M., Ohl, J., Letur, H., Guivarch, A., Catteau-Jonard, S., & De Mouzon, J. (2020). Profils et motivations des donneuses d’ovocytes en France en 2017–2018: Comparaison entre les nullipares et celles qui ont deja procree. Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 48(10), 736–745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gofs.2020.04.004

Kuleshova, L., Gianaroli, L., Magli, C., Ferraretti, A., & Trounson, A. (1999). Birth following vitrification of a small number of human oocytes: Case Report. Human Reproduction, 14(12), 3077–3079. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/14.12.3077

Lafontaine, C. (2019). L’autoconservation des ovocytes. Études, (7–8), 41–50. https://doi.org/10.3917/etu.4262.0041

Martinelli, L., Busatta, L., Galvagni, L., & Piciocchi, C. (2015). Social egg freezing: A reproductive chance or smoke and mirrors? Croatian Medical Journal, 56(4), 387–391. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2015.56.387

Mathieu, S. (2017). Quelle nature du desir ? : Assistance medicale a la procreation, desir d’enfant et transmission. Anthropologie et Sociétés, 41(2), 121–138. https://doi.org/10.7202/1042317ar

Mazuy, M. (2006). Être prêt-e, être prêts ensemble? : Entrée en parentalité des hommes et des femmes en France. [Doctoral dissertation, Sorbonne Paris 1].

McMahon, M. (1995). Engendering motherhood: Identity and self-transformation in women’s lives. The Guilford Press.

Mehl, D. (2011). La famille contemporaine au prisme des procreations medicalement assistees. Cliniques méditerranéennes, 83(1), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.3917/cm.083.0095

Miner, S. A., Miller, W. K., Grady, C., & Berkman, B. E. (2021). ≪It’s Just Another Added Benefit≫: Women’s Experiences with Employment-Based Egg Freezing Programs. AJOB Empirical Bioethics, 12(1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/23294515.2020.1823908

Neyer, G., & Bernardi, L. (2011). Feminist Perspectives on Motherhood and Reproduction. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 36(2), 162–176.

Perez, Y., & Rozee, V. (2019). L’autoconservation ovocytaire en France: Analyse d’une pratique biomedicale controversee. ¿Interrogations? Revue Pluridisciplinaire de Sciences Humaines et Sociales, (28), 1–16.

Perez-Hernandez, Y. (2021). Médicaliser l’incertitude. Étude ethnosociologique de l’autoconservation ovocytaire en France. [Doctoral dissertation, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales].

Petropanagos, A., Cattapan, A., Baylis, F., & Leader, A. (2015). Social egg freezing: Risk, benefits and other considerations. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal de l’Association Medicale Canadienne, 187(9), 666–669. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.141605

Ragone, H. (1997). Chasing the Blood Tie. Surrogate Mothers, Adoptive Mothers, and Fathers. In L. Lamphere, H. Ragone, & P. Zavella (Eds.), Situated Lives. Gender and Culture in Everyday Life (pp. 110–127). Routledge.

Rozee, V. (2013). Elles font des bebes toutes seules. Terrain, 61, 134–149. https://doi.org/10.4000/terrain.15219

Rozee, V., & De la Rochebrochard, E. (2010). L’acces a l’assistance medicale a la procreation en France: Reflet de la norme sociale procreative ? Santé, Société et Solidarité, 9(2), 109–114. https://doi.org/10.3406/oss.2010.1420

Rozee, V., & Mazuy, M. (2012). L’infertilite dans les couples heterosexuels: Genre et ≪gestion≫ de l’echec. Sciences sociales et santé, 30(4), 5–30. https://doi.org/10.3917/sss.304.0005

Sandor, J., Vicsek, L., & Bauer, Z. (2018). Let us talk about eggs! Professional resistance to elective egg vitrification and gendered medical paternalism. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 21(3), 311–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-017-9805-y

Shenfield, F., de Mouzon, J., Scaravelli, G., Kupka, M., Ferraretti, A. P., Prados, F. J., & Goossens, V. (2017). Oocyte and ovarian tissue cryopreservation in European countries: Statutory background, practice, storage and use. Human Reproduction Open, 2017(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/hropen/hox003

Shkedi-Rafid, S., & Hashiloni-Dolev, Y. (2012). Egg freezing for non-medical uses: The lack of a relational approach to autonomy in the new Israeli policy and in academic discussion. Journal of Medical Ethics, 38(3), 154–157. https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2011-100088

Stoop, D., Nekkebroeck, J., & Devroey, P. (2011). A survey on the intentions and attitudes towards oocyte cryopreservation for non-medical reasons among women of reproductive age. Human Reproduction, 26(3), 655–661. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deq367

Stoop, D., Maes, E., Polyzos, N. P., Verheyen, G., Tournaye, H., & Nekkebroeck, J. (2015). Does oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion influence future relational and reproductive choices? A follow-up of bankers and non-bankers. Human Reproduction, 30(2), 338–344. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deu317

Tan, S. Q., Tan, A. W. K., Lau, M. S. K., Tan, H. H., & Nadarajah, S. (2014). Social oocyte freezing: A survey among Singaporean female medical students. The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 40(5), 1345–1352. https://doi.org/10.1111/jog.12347

Thompson, C. (2001). Strategic Naturalizing: Kinship in an Infertility Clinic. In C. Thompson, S. Franklin & S. McKinnon (Eds), Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies (175-202), Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822383222-007

Thompson, C. (2005). Making Parents: The Ontological Choreography of Reproductive Technologies. MIT Press.

Van de Wiel, L. (2014). For Whom the Clock Ticks: Reproductive Ageing and Egg Freezing in Dutch and British News Media. Studies in the Maternal, 6(1), 1–28. https://doi.org/10.16995/sim.4

Van de Wiel, L. (2015). Freezing Fertility. Oocyte Cryopreservation and the Gender Politics of Aging. [Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam].

Vialle, M. (2017). Infertilité «normale» vs infertilité «pathologique»: Une oppositionen question. Normes et pratiques françaises de l’AMP face à l’infertilité féminine liée à l’âge. [Doctoral dissertation, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales].

Vialle, M. (2018). L’experience des femmes quadragenaires en AMP: Les seuils de la temporalite procreative, de la fertilite et de l’infertilite en question. Enfances, Familles, Générations, 29, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.7202/1051496ar

Vialle, M., Perrin, J., Amar-Hoffet, A., Boyer, P., & Courbiere, B. (2016). Femmes infertiles de plus de 40 ans: Loin du mythe de la femme ≪carrieriste≫ et du ≪droit a l’enfant≫. Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité, 44(4), 225–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gyobfe.2016.02.014

Waldby, C. (2015). ‘Banking time’: Egg freezing and the negotiation of future fertility. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 17(4), 470–482. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2014.951881




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2023.41.10





Copyright (c) 2023 Yolinliztli Pérez-Hernández

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.