The Primal Archetypal and Mythical Crone in Toni Morrison’s Portrayals of the Elder Woman



Palabras clave:

Anciana, negra, anciana/vieja, maternidad, hogar, comunidad


Las representaciones de Morrison sobre la mujer vieja resuenan con imágenes de la sabia y mítica Anciana, una imagen universal grabada en nuestra conciencia. En las sociedades pre-patriarcales, las Ancianas estaban asociadas tanto a la vida como a la muerte. El advenimiento del patriarcado cambió la forma en que se percibía a las ancianas, y sus roles sociales. Fueron demonizadas, su poder arrebatado, y consideradas inútiles e invisibles. Sin embargo, las Ancianas de Morrison son fuerzas vitales y una parte activa y valiosa de la comunidad. Morrison revaloriza sus roles domésticos maternales tradicionales, y la maternidad y el hogar se transforman, respectivamente, en acto y lugar transgresores de resistencia y poder. Con sus propiedades espirituales/sobrenaturales/curativas ancestrales, las Ancianas de Morrison son faros morales para sus comunidades. En su obra, Morrison reevalúa y reivindica el arquetipo primordial pre-patriarcal de la Anciana para empoderar y honrar a las mujeres negras ancianas y sus contribuciones a la comunidad negra.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Adell, S. (1997). Song of Solomon: Modernism in the Afro-American Studies Classroom. In N. Y. McKay & K. Earle (Eds.), Approaches to Teaching the Novels of Toni Morrison (pp. 63-67). MLA.

Askeland, L. (1999). Remodeling the Model Home in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Beloved. In W. L. Andrews & N. Y. McKay (Eds.), Beloved, A Casebook (pp. 159-179). Oxford UP.

Bernard, W. T., & Bernard, C. (1998). Passing the Torch: A Mother and Daughter Reflect on their Experiences Across Generations. Canadian Women Studies, 18(2), 46-50.

Bouson, J. B. (2009). Quiet as It’s Kept: Shame, Trauma, and Race in the Novels of Toni Morrison. In H. Bloom (Ed.), Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon (pp. 57-87). Bloom's Literary Criticism.

Carabí, À. (2006). The Representation of Masculinities: The Representation of Masculinity in U.S. Literature and Cinema (1980-2003). Research Project Summary. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Instituto de la Mujer.

Christian, B. (1999). The Contemporary Fables of Toni Morrison. In H. Bloom (Ed.), Toni Morrison’s Sula (pp. 25-50). Chelsea House.

Collins, P. H. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Routledge.

Collins, P. H. (1993). Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection. Race, Sex & Class, 1(1), 25-45.

Collins, P. H. (2000). Mammies, Matriarchs, and Other Controlling Images. In P. H. Collins (Ed.), Feminist Thought (pp. 69-96). Routledge.

Compagna-Doll, A. (2017). Unearthing the Third: The Crone in Depth Psychotherapy. [Pacifica Grduate Institute]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Conway, D. (2004). Maiden, Mother, Crone: The Myth and Reality of the Triple Goddess. Llewellyn Publications.

Denard, C. C. (1988). The Convergence of Feminism and Ethnicity in the Fiction of Toni Morrison. In N. Y. McKay (Ed.), Critical Essays on Toni Morrison (pp. 171-179). G. K. Hall & Co.

Demetrakopoulos, S. (1987). Sula and the Primacy of Woman-to-Woman Bonds. In C. Holloway, & S. Demetrakopoulos (Eds.), New Dimensions of Spirituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison (pp. 51-66). Greenwood.

Downing, C. (1987). Journey through Menopause. Crossroad.

Doyle, S. (2019, January 31). How Capitalism Turned Women into Witches. In These Times.

Dussere, E. (2003). Balancing the Books: Faulkner, Morrison and the Economies of Slavery. Routledge.

Eckard, P. G. (2002). Maternal Body and Voice in Toni Morrison, Bobbie Ann Mason, and Lee Smith. University of Missouri Press.

Edelman, H. (1994). Motherless Daughters: The Legacy of Loss. Delta.

Edwards, A. (2000). Community Mothering: The Relationship Between Mothering and the Community Work of Black Women. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 2(2), 87-100.

Fiore, J. M. (2003). “Growing Old Disgracefully”: A Feminist Reading of the Crone in Contemporary Multicultural American Literature [Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana U. of Pennsylvania]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Fluck, S. (2016, September 30). God Help the Child. Bookscover2cover.

Freiz, I. M. (2011). The Narrative of Aging: The Portrayal of the Aged in Toni Morrison and Ernest J. Gaines [Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Graves, R. (1959). Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Prometheus.

Harris, A. L. (1980). Myth as Structure in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon. Melus, 7(3), 69-76.

Harris-López, T. (Ed.). (2002). South of Tradition: Essays on African American Literature. Georgia UP.

Hayes, E. T. (2004). The Named and the Nameless: Morrison’s 124 and Naylor’s “The Other Place” as Semiotic Chorae. African American Review, 38, 669-681.

Holloway, K., & Demetrakopoulos, S. (1987). New Dimensions of Spirituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison. Greenwood.

Hunsicker, S. R. (2000). Fly Away Home: Tracing the Flying African Folktale from Oral Literature to Verse and Prose [Doctoral Dissertation, Ball State University of Muncie, Indiana].

Jennings, L. V. (2008). Toni Morrison and the Idea of Africa. Cambridge UP.

Jesser, N. (1999). Violence, Home and Community in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. African American Review, 33 (2).

Jung, C. (1916). The Structure of the Unconscious. Archives de Psychologie XVI.

Krumholz, L. (1999). The Ghosts of Slavery: Historical Recovery in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. In W. L. Andrews & N. Y. McKay (Eds.), Beloved, A Casebook (pp. 107-127). Oxford UP.

Lane, B. (Ed.) (2007). Housing and Dwelling: Perspectives on Modern Domestic Architecture. Routledge.

Lawrence, D. (1998). Fleshly Ghosts and Ghostly Flesh: The Word and The Body in Beloved [fragment]. In C. Plasa (Ed.), Toni Morrison: Beloved. Columbia Critical Guides (pp. 87-99). Columbia UP.

Lee, D. (1982). Song of Solomon: To Ride the Air. Black American Literature Forum, 16(2), 64-70.

Lee, D. (1984). The Quest for Self: Triumph and Failure in the Works of Toni Morrison. In M. Evans (Ed.), Black Women Writers (1950-1980) (pp. 346-50). Anchor-Doubleday.

López-Ramírez, M. (2020). The New Witch in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon and God Help the Child. African American Review, 52(1), 41-54.

Lorenzi-Prince, E. (2007). Tarot of the Crone: Deck. (2nd Edition). Lorenzi-Prince Publishing.

Mayberry, S. (2007). Can't I Love What I Criticize? The Masculine and Morrison. Georgia UP.

McKay, N. Y. (1994). An Interview with Toni Morrison. In D. Taylor-Guthrie (Ed.), Conversations with Toni Morrison (pp. 138-155). Mississippi UP.

Mori, A. (1999). Toni Morrison and Womanist Discourse. Peter Lang.

Morrison, T. (1970). The Bluest Eye. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Morrison, T. (1973). Sula. Alfred A. Knopf.

Morrison, T. (1978). Song of Solomon. Signet.

Morrison, T. (1984). Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation. In M. Evans (Ed.), Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation (pp. 339-345). Anchor-Doubleday.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved. Plume.

Morrison, T. (1993). Tar Baby. Alfred A. Knopf.

Morrison, T. (1998). Paradise. Alfred A. Knopf.

Morrison, T. (2012). Home. Chatto & Windus.

Morrison, T. (2015). God Help the Child. Alfred Knopf.

Moynihan, P. D. (1965). The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Office of Policy Planning and Research. United States Department of Labor.

Oliveira, N., & Medeiros, M. (2015). Is It All About Money? Women Characters and Family Bonds in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun and Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon. Revista Scripta Uniandrade, 13(2), 151-163.

O’Reilly, A. (2004). Toni Morrison and Motherhood: A Politics of the Heart. State University of New York Press.

Ray, R., & McFadden, S. (2001). The Web and the Quilt: Alternatives to the Heroic Journey toward Spiritual Development. Journal of Adult Development, 8(4), 201-211.

Revel, A. (2008). Outing the Goddess Within. NowAge.

Ribeiro, A. C., & de Paiva dos Santos, J. (2017). Rethinking Motherhood and Motherly Love in Toni Morrison’s Sula and Gloria Naylor’s The Women of Brewster Place. Artigos Ilha Desterro, 70(1).

Samuels, W., & Hudson-Weems, C. (1990). Toni Morrison. Twayne.

Sempruch, J. (2005). Sacred Mother, the Evil Witches and the Politics of Household in Toni Morrison’s Paradise. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 7(1), 98-109.

Suero-Elliott, M. (2000). Postcolonial Experience in a Domestic Context: Commodified Subjectivity in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Melus, 25(3/4).

Tally, J. (2009). Toni Morrison’s Beloved: Origins. Routledge.

Taylor-Guthrie, D. (Ed.). (1994). Conversations with Toni Morrison. Mississippi University Press.

Vega-González, S. (2013). The Keys to the House of Healing: Toni Morrison’s Home. The Grove, 20, 201-219.

Walker, B. (1985). The Crone: Woman of Age, Wisdom, and Power. HarperCollins.

Wilentz, G. (2003). Civilizations Underneath: African Heritage as Cultural Discourse in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon. In J. Furman (Ed.), Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon: A Casebook (pp. 137-164). Oxford UP.

Zauditu-Selassie, K. (2007). Women Who Know Things: African Epistemologies, Ecocriticism, and Female Spiritual Authority in the Novels of Toni Morrison. Journal of Pan-African Studies, 1(7), 38-57.

Ženíšek, J. (2007). Voodoo or Allegory? Toni Morrison’s Magical Realism Walks a Thin Line Between Magic Reality and Mythical Folklore. South Bohemian Anglo-American Studies: Dream, Imagination and Reality in Literature, 1, 128-134.



Estadísticas en RUA



Cómo citar

López-Ramírez, M. (2022). The Primal Archetypal and Mythical Crone in Toni Morrison’s Portrayals of the Elder Woman. Feminismo/s, (40), 101–127.



Dosier monográfico