Animales en el (nuevo) espacio: chimponautas, cosmoperros, y biosfera II

Greta Gaard

Resumen

Como muchas de las personas nacidas durante la posguerra, crecí con imágenes de chimpancés catapultados al espacio como parte del programa de la NASA para la exploración espacial; también había leído acerca de Laika, la perra rusa que murió en su primera misión espacial, involuntariamente reclutada en las calles de Moscú, donde había vivido como un perro callejero. La Biosfera II –el intento fallido de volver a crear ecosistemas de la tierra en un recinto a las afueras de Tucson, Arizona– también se valió de animales, esta vez convertidos en alimento, como parte de un proyecto más amplio que investigaba las posibilidades de la vida humana más allá de la tierra. Ahora, los empresarios de NewSpace se dedican a buscar tecno-soluciones y viajes espaciales para élites en búsqueda de aventuras en recintos más allá de la superficie terrestre que cambia constantemente debido al cambio climático. Una perspectiva ecofeminista puede enriquecer nuestra comprensión de la ideología de la exploración espacial analizando cómo las narrativas culturales de género, especie y cultura se manifiestan tanto aquí en la tierra como más allá de nuestra biosfera. Cuestionar la investigación tecno-científica en el espacio exterior puede mejorar nuestra manera de comprender los problemas medioambientales contemporáneos tales como el cambio climático, la justicia ambiental y las relaciones entre humanos y animales.

Palabras clave

Ecofeminismo; Animales; Género; Cambio climático; Justicia ambiental; Relaciones entre seres humanos y animales; Laika; Biosfera II

Referencias


Abadzis, Nick. Laika. New York: First Second, 2007.

Adams, Carol J. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. New York: Continuum, 1990.

Adams, Carol J. and Josephine Donovan, eds. Animals & Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

Adams, Carol J. and Lori Gruen, eds. Ecofeminism: Feminist Intersections with Other Animals and the Earth. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing (forthcoming 2014).

Allen, John. Biosphere II: The Human Experiment. New York: Viking/Penguin Books, 1991.

Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

Burgess, Colin, and Chris Dubbs. Animals in Space: From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle. Chichester, UK: Springer/Praxis Books in Space Exploration, 2007.

Cassidy, David, with Kristin Davy. “One Small Step: The Story of the Space Chimps.” (57:00). Distributed by Victory Multimedia, Inglewood, CA. 1989.

Collard, Andree, with Joyce Contrucci. Rape of the Wild: Man’s Violence against Animals and the Earth. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Connell, R. W. Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.

Cooper, Marc. “Faking It: The Biosphere Is a Model of the Earth After All—It’s Suffering From Runaway Greenhouse Effect,” The Village Voice. November 12, 1991. pp. 19-21.

Cooper, Marc. “Profits of Doom: The Biosphere Project Finally Comes Out of the Closet— As a Theme Park.” The Village Voice. July 30, 1991. pp. 31-36.

Cooper, Marc. “Take This Terrarium and Shove It.” The Village Voice. April 2, 1991. pp.24-33.

Dickens, Peter. “The Cosmos as Capitalism’s Outside,” Sociological Review, 57:s1 (May 2009), pp. 66-82.

Donovan, Josephine. “Animal Rights and Feminist Theory.” Signs, 15:2 (1990) pp. 350-375.

Donovan, Josephine. and Carol J. Adams, eds. The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Fisher Smith, Jordan. “Life Under the Bubble.” Discover Magazine, October 20, 2010. Web.

Fox Keller, Evelyn, and Helen Longino, eds. Feminism & Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Gaard, Greta. “Speaking of Animal Bodies.” Hypatia (Summer 2012). Web.

Gaard, Greta. “Toward a Queer Ecofeminism,” Hypatia 12.1 (1997), pp. 114-137.

Gruen, Lori. “Experimenting with Animals.” pp. 105-129, in Ethics and Animals. London: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Gruen, Lori. “Navigating Difference (again): Animal Ethics and Entangled Empathy.” pp.213-234, in Gregory Smulewicz-Zucker, ed. Strangers to Nature: Animal Lives & Human Ethics. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012.

Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Harper, A. Breeze, ed. Sistah Vegan: Black Female Vegans Speak on Food, Identity, Health, and Society. Brooklyn, NY: Lantern Books, 2010.

Henry, Holly, and Amanda Taylor. “Re-thinking Apollo: Envisioning Environmentalism in Space.” Sociological Review, 57:s1 (2009), pp. 190-203.

Hillard, Richard. Ham the Astrochimp, Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, 2007.

Hubbard, Ruth. The Politics of Women’s Biology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Kemmerer, Lisa, ed. Sister Species: Women, Animals, and Social Justice. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2011.

Kemp, Martin. “A Dog’s Life: Laika, the Doomed Stray, Has Achieved a Kind of Immortality.” Nature 449 (October 4, 2007) 541.

Kheel, Marti. “From Healing Herbs to Deadly Drugs: Western Medicine’s War Against the Natural World.” pp. 96-114 in Judith Plant, ed. Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Press, 1989.

Kheel, Marti. “From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge.” pp. 243-271 in Greta Gaard, ed., Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1993.

Kheel, Marti. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.

Klein, Naomi. “Geoengineering: Testing the Waters.” New York Times. October 27, 2012. Web.

Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford University Press, 1949.

Luke, Timothy. “Reproducing Planet Earth? The Hubris of Biosphere 2.” The Ecologist, 25:4 (July/August 1995), pp. 157-16.

McKibben, Bill. “Global Warming’s Terrifying New Math.” Rolling Stone Magazine. July 19, 2012. Web.

McKibben, Bill. “The Only Way to Have a Cow.” Orion Magazine. March/April 2010. Web. McWilliams, James. “Agnostic Carnivores and Global Warming: Why Enviros Go After Coal and Not Cows.” Freakonomics.com. November 16, 2011. Web.

Milsapps, Jan. Screwed Pooch. Booksurge Publishing, 2007.

Murphy, Patrick D. “An Ecological Feminist Revisioning of the Masculinist Sublime.” Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 64 (Summer 2012), pp. 79-94.

Nixon, Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Oulette, Jennifer. “Space Dog Laika Finally Gets a Happy Ending.” DiscoveryNews, July 12, 2011. Web.

Peet, Bill. The Wump World. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1970.

Plumwood, Val. Feminism and the Mastery of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Poynter, Jane. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2. New York: Avalon Publishing Group/Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2006.

Siano, Brian. “The Skeptical Eye: Captain Future’s Terrarium of Discipline.” The Humanist, (March/April 1992) pp. 41-42.

Smith, Warren. “To Infinity and Beyond?” Sociological Review 57:s1 (2009), pp.204-212.

Stehfest, Elkie, et al., “Climate Benefits of Changing diet.” Climatic Change 95:1-2 (July 2009), pp. 83-102.

Valentine, David. “Exit Strategy: Profit, Cosmology, and the Future of Humans in Space,” Anthropological Quarterly, 84:4 (2012), pp. 1045-1068.

Veysey, Lawrence. The Communal Experience: Anarchist and Mythical Counter-Cultures in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Vining, James. First in Space. Portland, OR: Oni Press, Inc., 2007.

Wedderburn-Bisshop, Gerard, and Lefkothea Pavlidis. “Shorter Lived Climate Forcers: Agriculture Sector and Land Clearing for Livestock.” The International Journal of Climate Change 3:2, pp. 129-144.

Weisberg, Zipporah. “The Broken Promises of Monsters: Haraway, Animals, and the Humanist Legacy.” Journal of Critical Animal Studies 7:2 (2009) pp. 21-61.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2013.22.08





Copyright (c) 2013 Feminismo/s

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.