Feminismo/s

Estereotipos de género y retrosexismo en el discurso publicitario desde una perspectiva postfeminista

Antonia Montes

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2021.38.07

Resumen

En la publicidad prevalecen los estereotipos femeninos negativos y la representación de las mujeres en roles sociales tradicionales, ligados a actividades y ocupaciones domésticas. Los anunciantes creen que la utilización de los planteamientos posfeministas para sus propios fines es una estrategia publicitaria eficaz. Este artículo analiza la apropiación del discurso posfeminista con el objetivo de mostrar cómo se representan los estereotipos y clichés femeninos negativos e incluso degradantes. También se examina cómo se construye un imaginario retro-sexista en el discurso de la publicidad. Se realiza, desde una perspectiva del discurso crítico feminista (Lazar, 2005, 2007), un estudio de caso de la marca de relojes de lujo IWC. Se concluye que la publicidad perpetúa las visiones erróneas sobre el rol de la mujer en la sociedad y refuerza los estereotipos femeninos negativos y degradantes mediante la construcción de un universo retro-sexista en el imaginario colectivo y dificulta el progreso hacia la igualdad de género.

Palabras clave

Discurso publicitario; Posfeminismo; Estereotipos de géneros; Retro-sexismo; Igualdad de género

Texto completo:

PDF (English) Estadísticas

Referencias

Akestam, N., Resengren, S., & Dahlen, M. (2017). Advertising ‘like a girl’: Toward a better understanding of ‘femvertising’ and its effects. Psychology and Marketing, 34, 795–806. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21023

Arend, P. (2014). Gender and Advertising. In P. Leavy & A. Trier-Bieniek (Eds.), Gender & Pop Culture: A Text-Reader. (pp. 53–79). Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-575-5_3

Catterall, M., Maclaran, P., & Stevens, L. (2005). Postmodern Paralysis: The Critical Impass In Feminist Perspectives on Consumers. Journal of Marketing Management, 21, 489–504. https://doi.org/10.1362/0267257054307444

Eisend, M., Plagemann, J., & Sollwedel, J. (2014). Gender Roles and Humor in Advertising: The Occurrence of Stereotyping in Humorous and Nonhumorous Advertising and Its Consequences for Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 43(3), 256–273. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2013.857621

Eisend, M. (2019). Gender Roles. Journal of Advertising, 48, 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2019.1566103

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analysing discourse: textual analysis for social research. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203697078

Furnham, A., & Paltzer, S. (2010). The portrayal of men and women in television advertisements: an update review of 30 studies published since 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(3), 216–236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00772.x

Gentry, J., & Harrison, R. (2010). Is advertising a barrier to male movement toward a gender change? Marketing Theory, 10(1), 74–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593109355246

Gill, R., & Arthurs, J. (2006). Editors' Introduction. Feminist Media Studies, 6(4), 443–451. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680770600989855

Gill, R. (2016). Post-post feminism? new feminist visibilities in postfeminist times. Feminist Media Studies, 16(4), 610–630. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2016.1193293

Grau, S. L., & Zotos, Y. C. (2016). Gender stereotypes in advertising: a review of current research. International Journal of Advertising, 35(5), 761–770. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2016.1203556

IWC Homepage. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.iwc.com/en/home.html

IWC wechselt zu JvM/Alster (2005, March 17). Die Werbewoche. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.werbewoche.ch/de/werbung/2005-03-17/iwc-wechselt-zu-jvm-alster/

IWC-Werbung wirkt (2015, January 28). 100 Percent Passion. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://100percentpassion.net/2015/01/28/iwc-werbung-wirkt/

Jaffe, D., & Riedel, S. (2011). Werbung für Adam und Eva. Zielgruppengerechte Ansprache durch Gender Marketing Communication. WILEY-VCH Verlag.

Kreienkamp, E. (2007). Gender-Marketing. Impulse für die Marktforschung, Produkte, Werbung und Personalentwicklung. Mi-Fachverlag.

Lazar, M. M. (2005). Politicizing Gender in Discourse: Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis as Political Perspective and Praxis. In M.M. Lazar (Ed.), Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender, power and ideology in discourse (pp. 1–29). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230599901_1

Lazar, M.M. (2006). Discover the power femininity! Analyzing global ‘power femininity’ in local advertising. Feminist Media Studies, 6(4), 505–517. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680770600990002

Lazar, M.M. (2007). Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis. Articulating a feminist discourse practice. Critical Discourse Studies, 4(2), 141–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405900701464816

Lazar, M.M. (2014). Recuperating feminism, reclaiming femininity: hybrid postfeminist I-dentity in consumer advertisements. Gender and Language, 8(2), 205–224. https://doi.org/10.1558/genl.v8i2.205

Lewis, P., Benschop, Y., & Simpson, R. (2017). Post feminism, Gender, and Organization. Gender, Work, and Organization, 24(3), 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12175

Lüchinger, R. (2005, March 22). IWC Schluss mit Machismo. Handelszeitung.

Maclaran, P. (2012). Marketing and feminism in historic perspective. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 4(3), 462–469. https://doi.org/10.1108/17557501211252998

Maclaran, P. (2015). Feminism’s fourth wave: a research agenda for marketing and consumer research. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(15-16), 1732–1738. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1076497

Mayer, J. M., Kumar, P., & Yoon, H. J. (2019). Does sexual humour work on mars, but not on Venus? An exploration of consumer acceptance of sexually humorous advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 38(7), 1000–1024. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2019.1629226

McRobbie, A. (2009). The Aftermath of Feminism. Sage.

McRobbie, A. (2015). Notes on the Perfect. Australian Feminist Studies, 30(83), 3–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/08164649.2015.1011485

Mills, S. (1995). Feminist Stylistics. Routledge.

Petersson McIntyr, M. (2020). Agencing femininity: digital Mrs. Consumer in intra-action. Journal of Cultural Economy, 13(1), 54–72. https://doi.org/10.1080/17530350.2019.1639529

Plakoyiannaki, E., & Zotos, Y. C. (2009): Female role stereotypes in print advertising. Identifying associations with magazine and product categories. European Journal of Marketing, 43(11/12), 1411–1434. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560910989966

Rome, A.S., O’Donohoe, S., & Dumnett, S. (2019). Rethinking feminist waves. In S. Dobscha (Ed.), Handbook of research on Gender and Marketing (pp. 252–271). Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788115384.00016

Scott, L.M. (2000). Market feminism: the case or a paradigm shift. In M. Catterall, P. Maclaran, & L. Stevens (Eds.), Marketing and Feminism: current Issues and Research (pp. 16–38). Routledge..

Scott, L.M. (2005). Fresh Lipstick: Redressing Fashion and Feminism. Palgrave.

Tannen, D. (1995). You just don't understand: women and men in conversation. Virago.

Uhrenwerbung im Stillstand (2001, March 22). Die Werbewoche. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.werbewoche.ch/de/werbung/2001-03-22/uhrenwerbung-im-stillstand/

Weber, L. (2002, February 3). IWC Werbung zwischen Machismo und Globalisierung. Für letzte Mohikaner. Neue Züricher Zeitung.

Williamson, J. (2003, May 31). Sexism with an alibi. The Guardian, 1–3.

Windels, K., Champlin, S., Summer, S., Sterbenk, Y., & Poteet, M. (2019). Selling Feminism: How female empowerment campaigns employ postfeminist discourses. Journal of Advertising, 49, 18–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2019.1681035

Wirz ohne IWC Uhren - "Jetzt sind wir unser Macho-Image los" (2005, June 9). DerStandard. Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://www.derstandard.at/story/1994512/wirz-ohne-iwc-uhren-jetzt-sind-wir-unser-macho-image

Zawisza, M. (2019). Gendered Advertising: content, effectiveness and effects – psychological perspective. In S. Dobscha (Ed.), Handbook of research on gender and marketing (pp. 8–27). Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788115384.00006




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2021.38.07





Copyright (c) 2021 Antonia Montes

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.