Feminismo/s

Pintando con palabras: la descripción de mujeres en la fotografía

Iryna Mykytka, Isabel Balteiro

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2021.38.06

Resumen

Este estudio pretende identificar y analizar los recursos lingüísticos que se utilizan para describir a las mujeres en la fotografía, y las similitudes y diferencias entre las descripciones de mujeres y hombres. Hoy en día, las fotografías digitales suelen ir acompañadas de texto, tales como títulos, descripciones, comentarios o etiquetas. Aunque el lenguaje utilizado en las redes sociales se ha explorado en gran medida en relación con diferentes campos de conocimiento y desde diferentes perspectivas, hasta donde sabemos, no hay ningún trabajo que trate el lenguaje utilizado por los fotógrafos profesionales para describir a mujeres y hombres. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, hemos recopilado dos muestras de las palabras clave utilizadas por fotógrafos profesionales para describir imágenes que representan figuras femeninas y masculinas, extraídas de un banco de imágenes de fotógrafos profesionales (Alamy). Para cumplir con el objetivo propuesto, se han identificado y seleccionado los adjetivos descriptivos utilizados, para luego analizarlos, compararlos y contrastarlos. Los resultados muestran grandes similitudes en el uso de los adjetivos descriptivos para las imágenes de mujeres y hombres. Asimismo, parecen sugerir que las mujeres y su belleza son descritas desde la perspectiva masculina y los estereotipos presentes en nuestra sociedad.

Palabras clave

Mujeres/femenino; Hombres/masculino; Género; Fotografía digital; Adjetivos descriptivos

Texto completo:

PDF (English) Estadísticas

Referencias

Ames, K. (2004). Adobe Photoshop CS: the art of photographing women. Hungry Minds Inc.

Ames, K. (2006). Adobe Photoshop CS2: the art of photographing women. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.5.8) [Computer Software]. Retrieved August 15, 2020, from https://www.laurenceanthony.net

Arnold, E. (2020). The unretouched woman. In E. Arnold, A. Heyman, S. Meiselas, & C. Bouveresse (Eds.), Unretouched women: Eve Arnold, Abigail Heyman, Susan Meiselas. Femmes à l’oeuvre, femmes à l’épreuve de l’image (pp. 23-40). Actes Sud. (Original work published in 1976).

Benjamin, W. (1931). A short history of photography. In W. Benjamin (auth.), Selected writings, (Vol. 2), (pp. 1927-1934). Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://monoskop.org/images/7/79/Benjamin_Walter_1931_1972_A_Short_History_of_Photography.pdf

Berger, J. (1972). Ways of seeing. British Broadcasting Corporation & Penguin Books.

Betz, D. E., Sabik, N. J., & Ramsey, L. R. (2019). Ideal comparisons: body ideals harm women’s body image through social comparison. Body Image, 29, 100-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2019.03.004

Bhopal, R., & Donaldson, L. (1998). White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health. American Journal of Public Health, 88(9), 1303-1307. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.88.9.1303

Biesenbach, K. (ed.) (2010). Marina Abramović: the artist is present, Exhibition Catalog with essays by Klaus

Biesenbach, Arthur C. Danto, Chrissie Iles, Nancy Spector, y Jovana Stokić, Museum of Modern Art.

Bordo, S. (2003). Unbearable weight: feminism, Western culture, and the body. University of California Press. https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520930711

Broude, N., & Garrard, M. D. (1996). The power of feminist art: the American movement of the 1970s, history and impact. Harry N. Abrams. https://doi.org/10.2307/431689

Carro Fernández, S. (2010). Mujeres de ojos rojos. Del arte feminista al arte femenino. Trea.

Costa, P. T. J., Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 322-331. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.2.322

Coy-Dibley, I. (2016). «Digitized dysmorphia» of the female body: the re/disfigurement of the image. Palgrave Communications, 2(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1057/palcomms.2016.40

De Cadenet, A. (2017). #girlgaze: how girls see the world. Rizzoli International Publication.

Dean, J., & Aune, K. (2015). Feminism resurgent? Mapping contemporary feminist activisms in Europe. Social Movement Studies, 14(4), 375-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2015.1077112

Deepwell, K. (1991). Women artists working in Britain between the two World Wars. Birkbeck College.

Deliovsky, K. (2008). Normative white femininity: race, gender and the politics of beauty. Atlantis: Critical Studies in Gender, Culture & Social Justice, 33(1), 49-59.

Denny, M. (2009). Royals, royalties and remuneration: American and British women photographers in the Victorian era. Women’s History Review, 18(5), 801-818. https://doi.org/10.1080/09612020903282183

Denny, M. (2010). From commerce to art: American women photographers 1850-1900 [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Illinois at Chicago.

Denny, M. (2012). Catharine Weed Barnes Ward: advocate for Victorian women Photographers. History of Photography, 36(2), 156-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/03087298.2012.654938

Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: emergence of the five-factor model. Annual review of psychology, 41(1), 417-440. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221

Dollinger, S. J., & Clancy, S. M. (1993). Identity, self, and personality: II. Glimpses through the autophotographic eye. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(6), 1064-1071. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.6.1064

Döring, N., Reif, A., & Poeschl, S. (2016). How gender-stereotypical are selfies? A content analysis and comparison with magazine adverts. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 955-962. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.001

Doy, G. (1998). More than meets the eye… representations of black women in mid-19th-century French photography. Women’s Studies International Forum, 21(3), 305-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395(98)00020-X

Export, V. (1969). Action Pants: Genital Panic [photograph]. Tate Galery. Retrieved September 20, 2020, from https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/export-action-pants-genital-panic-p79233

Fahmy, S. (2004). Picturing Afghan women: a content analysis of AP wire photographs during the Taliban regime and after the fall of the Taliban regime. Gazette, 66(2), 91-112. https://doi.org/10.1177/0016549204041472

Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 429-456. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.429

Fischer, A. (1993). Sex differences in emotionality: fact or stereotype? Feminism and Psychology, 3, 303-318. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353593033002

Gabbard, G. O. (1998). Vertigo: female objectification, male desire, and object loss. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 18(2), 161-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/07351699809534181

Gerhard, J. F. (2013). The Dinner Party. Judy Chicago and the power of popular feminism. 1970-2007. University of Georgia Press.

Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. Harper and Row.

González-Moreno, M. B. (2017). Fotografía, mujer e identidad: imágenes femeninas en la fotografía desde finales de los 60 [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Granada.

Gover, C. J. (1988). The positive image: women photographers in turn-of-the-century America. State University of New York. Greenberg, J. (2018). The female lens. [TEDx Talk]. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.ted.com/talks/jill_greenberg_the_female_lens_jan_2_2018

Grogan, S. (2017). Body image. Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Guerrilla Girls, The. (2020). The Guerrilla Girls. The art of behaving badly. Chronicle Books.

Hadland, A., Lambert, P., & Barnett, C. (2016). The state of news photography 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/handle/1893/24525#.YHqW0C0lNO1

Haferkamp, N., Eimler, S. C., Papadakis, A. M., & Kruck, J. V. (2012). Men are from Mars, women are from Venus? Examining gender differences in self-presentation on social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0151

Hall, J. A., Carter, J. D., & Horgan, T. G. (2000). Gender differences in nonverbal communication of emotion. In A.

Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: social psychological perspectives (pp. 97-17). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628191.006

Hess, U., Adams Jr, R., & Kleck, R. (2005). Who may frown and who should smile? Dominance, affiliation, and the display of happiness and anger. Cognition & Emotion, 19(4), 515-536. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930441000364

Heyman, A. (2020). Growing up female. In E. Arnold, A. Heyman, S. Meiselas, & C. Bouveresse (Eds.), Unretouched women: Eve Arnold, Abigail Heyman, Susan Meiselas. Femmes à l’oeuvre, femmes à l’épreuve de l’image (pp. 2-22). Actes Sud. (Original work published in 1974).

John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: history, measurement, and conceptual issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.). Handbook of personality psychology: theory and research (3rd ed), (pp. 114-158). Guilford Press.

Kang, M. E. (1997). The portrayal of women’s images in magazine advertisements: Goffman’s gender analysis revisited. Sex Roles, 37(11-12), 979-996.

LaFrance, M., & Hecht, M. A. (1999). Option or obligation to smile: the effects of power and gender on facial expression. In P. Philippot, R. S. Feldman, & E. J. Coats (Eds.), The social context of nonverbal behavior (pp. 45-70). Cambridge University Press.

Looft, R. (2017): #girlgaze: photography, fourth wave feminism, and social media advocacy. Continuum, 31(6), 892-902. https://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2017.1370539

Marín, F., & Ganzabal, M. (2011). La mujer (in) visible: la construcción de la identidad femenina a través de la fotografía en El País y El Mundo. Enl@ce: Revista Venezolana de Información, Tecnología y Conocimiento, 8(3), 51-67.

Meiselas, S. (2020). Carnival strippers. In E. Arnold, A. Heyman, S. Meiselas, & C. Bouveresse (Eds.), Unretouched women: Eve Arnold, Abigail Heyman, Susan Meiselas. Femmes à l’oeuvre, femmes à l’épreuve de l’image (pp. 41-191). Actes Sud. (Original work published in 1976).

Mitchell, M. (1979). Recollections: ten women of photography. New York, NY: The Viking Press.

Morna, C. L. (Ed.). (2002). Gender in media training. A Southern African tool kit. DS Print Media.

Moss, J. (2014, November 1). As subtle as the pose. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.jennifermoss.com/

Moss, J. (2017, August 30). As subtle as the pose – 3 years later. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.jennifermoss.com/

Mulvey, L. (1989). Visual and other pleasures. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-19798-9

Muñoz-Muñoz, A. M., & González-Moreno, M. B. (2014). La mujer como objeto (modelo) y sujeto (fotógrafa) en la fotografía. Arte, Individuo y Sociedad, 26(1), 39-54. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_ARIS.2014.v26.n1.40581

Muñoz‐Muñoz, A. M., & González‐Moreno, M. B. (2017). The presence of women photographers in the permanent collections of ten European museums. Curator: The Museum Journal, 60(2), 205-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/cura.12198

Munro, E. (2013). Feminism: a fourth wave? Political Insight, 4 (2), 22-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-9066.12021

Newbury, D., Rizzo, L., & Thomas, K. (2020). Women and photography in Africa. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003087410

Newhall, B. (2002). Historia de la fotografía. Barcelona: Gustavo Gili.

Nochlin, L. (2018). Why have there been no great women artists? In L. Nochlin, Women, art, and power and other essays (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-36). Routledge. (Original work published in 1971). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429502996-7

Otto, E., & Rocco, V. (Eds.). (2011). The new woman international: representations in photography and film from the 1870s through the 1960s. University of Michigan Press. https://doi.org/10.3998/dcbooks.9475509.0001.001

Park, J., & Ha, J. (2015). A study on female image of the third wave feminism in fashion photographs. Fashion & Textile Research Journal, 17(1), 33-41. https://doi.org/10.5805/SFTI.2015.17.1.33

Parrott, W. (2001). Emotions in social psychology: essential readings. Psychology Press.

Pérez Gauli, J. C. (2000). El cuerpo en venta: relación entre arte y publicidad. Cátedra.

Perkins, M. (2009). Poses for photographing women: a visual sourcebook for portrait photographers. Amherst Media.

Pultz, J. (1995). The body and the lens: photography 1839 to the present. Harry N. Abrams.

Raymond, C. (2017). Women photographers and feminist aesthetics. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315628912

Riches, H. (2014). ‘Picture taking and picture making:’ gender difference and the historiography of photography. In T. Sheehan (Ed.), Photography, history, difference (pp. 128-150). Dartmouth College Press.

Robinson, H. (1987). Visible female. Camden Press.

Rodgers, S., Kenix, L. J., & Thorson, E. (2007). Stereotypical portrayals of emotionality in news photos. Mass Communication and Society, 10(1), 119-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205430709337007

Rojas, J. (2016). Photographing women: posing, lighting, and shooting techniques for portrait and fashion photography. Rocky Nook.

Rosenblum, N. (2015). A history of women photographers (3rd ed.). Abbeville Press Inc.

Rosler, M. (2004). Decoys and disruptions: selected writings 1975-2001. The MIT Press.

Rosler, M. (2012). Imágenes públicas: la función política de la imagen. FotoGGrafía.

Ruggerone, L. (2006). The simulated (fictitious) body: the production of women’s images in fashion photography. Poetics, 34(6), 354-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2006.10.005

Sattari, M., & Mousavi, S. (2013). The role of gender in photographic works: Do men and women capture different photographs? International Journal of Women’s Research, 2(2), 73-88.

Sebag-Montefiore, C. (2019). Women battling sexism in photography –a picture essay. The Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/mar/07/women-battling-sexism-in-photography-a-picture-essay

Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (6), 1061-1086. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1061

Shields, S. A. (1987). Women, men, and the dilemma of emotion. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Sex and gender (pp. 229-250). Sage.

Siegel, E. (2012). Photographing women: 1,000 poses. Peachpit Press.

Sontag, S. (1984). The double standard of aging. In M. Rainbolt and J. Fleetwood (Eds.). On the contrary: essays by men and women (pp. 99-112). State University of New York Press.

Sontag, S. (1999). A photograph is not an opinion. Or is it?. In A. Leibovitz, & S. Sontag, Women: new portraits. New York: Random House. https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/library/photos/leibovitz/sontag-essay.html

Soobben, D. (2013). Photographic representation of women in the media: a casestudy of the post. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 3, 36-59.

Spence, J., & Solomon, J. (1995). What can a woman do with a camera? Photography for women. Scarlett Press.

Sypeck, M. F., Gray, J. J., & Ahrens, A. H. (2004). No longer just a pretty face: fashion magazines’ depictions of ideal female beauty from 1959 to 1999. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 36(3), 342-347. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20039

Vitova, D. (2019, September 25). Why female photographers still mimic the male gaze. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://denisavitova.medium.com/why-female-photographers-still-mimic-the-male-gaze-b0a23f831773

Walsh, V.A. (1994). Unbounded women? Feminism, creativity and embodiment. In G. Jasser and M. Verloo, Feminisms in Europe: cultural and political practices. WISE.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/fem.2021.38.06





Copyright (c) 2021 Iryna Mykytka, Isabel Balteiro

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.